In an exchange diet, foods that are similar are grouped together. Serving sizes are well defined so that each will have the same amount of carbohydrate, fat, and protein as any other. Foods can be "exchanged" or traded with others in a category while still meeting the desired overall goals. Exchanges can be applied to most any eating situation and may make it easier to follow a prescribed diet. For example, if a nutrition plan calls for one starch exchange a person could choose 1/2 cup of cooked pasta, or one slice of bread, or a small (3 oz.) baked potato. Learn more about food echange lists here.
also called urinalysis; a test of a urine sample to diagnose diseases of the urinary system and other body systems. In people with diabetes, a doctor may check for: Glucose, a sign of diabetes or other diseases; Protein, a sign of kidney damage, or nephropathy; White blood cells, a sign of urinary tract infection; Ketones, a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis or other conditions. Urine may also be checked for signs of bleeding. Some tests use a single urine sample. For others, 24-hour collection may be needed. And sometimes a sample is "cultured" to see exactly what type of bacteria grows.