Browse Glossary: "a"
a test that measures a person's average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months. Hemoglobin a>in the bloodstream. Also called hemoglobin A1C or glycosylated (gly-KOH-sih-lay-ted) hemoglobin, the test shows the amount of glucose that sticks to the red blood cell, which is proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood.
a skin condition characterized by darkened skin patches; common in people whose body is not responding correctly to the insulin that they make in their pancreas (insulin resistance). Patches may appear on the neck, under the breast, in the groin area, in an armpit or top of the knuckles. This skin condition is also seen in people who have pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes.
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It blocks the enzymes that digest starches in food. The result is a slower and lower rise inblood glucose throughout the day, especially right after meals. Belongs to the class of medicines called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. (Brand name: Precose.)
ACE inhibitors are medications that treat hypertension nzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent an enzyme in your body from producing Angiotensin II, a substance that narrows your blood vessels and releases hormones that can raise your blood pressure.
acesulfame puh-TAS-ee-um): a dietary sweetener with no calories and no nutritional value. Also known as acesulfame-K. (Brand name: Sunett.)
a dietary sweetener with no calories and no nutritional value. Also known as acesulfame-K. (Brand name: Sunett.)
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Dymelor.)
describes something that happens suddenly and for a short time. Opposite of chronic.
a condition of the shoulder associated with diabetes that results in pain and loss of the ability to move the shoulder in all directions.
former term for type 2 diabetes.
stands for advanced glycosylation (gly-KOH-sih-LAY-shun) endproducts. AGEs are produced in the body when glucose links with protein. They play a role in damaging blood vessels, which can lead to diabetes complications.
a type of cell in the pancreas. Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon. The body sends a signal to the alpha cells to make glucagon when blood glucose falls too low. Then glucagon reaches the liver where it tells it to release glucose into the blood for energy.
a class of oral medicine for type 2 diabetes that blocks enzymes that digest starches in food. The result is a slower and lower rise in blood glucose throughout the day, especially right after meals. (Generic names: acarbose and miglitol.)
a type of neuropathy resulting in pain, weakness, and/or wasting in the muscles.
a condition in which the number of red blood cells is less than normal, resulting in less oxygen being carried to the body's cells.
proteins made by the body to protect itself from "foreign" substances such as bacteria or viruses. People get type 1 diabetes when their bodies make antibodies that destroy the body's own insulin-making beta cells.
substances that cause an immune response in the body. The body "sees" the antigens as harmful or foreign. To fight them, the body produces antibodies, which attack and try to eliminate the antigens.
an oral medicine that lowers blood pressure ; ARB stands for angiotensin
hardening of the arteries.
a large blood vessel that carries blood with oxygen from the heart to all parts of the body.
a rapid-acting insulin. On average, aspart insulin (Novolog) starts to lower blood glucose within 10 to 20 minutes after injection. It has its strongest effect 1 to 3 hours after injection but keeps working for 3 to 5 hours after injection.
a dietary sweetener with almost no calories and no nutritional value. (Brand names: Equal, NutraSweet.)
no symptoms; no clear sign of disease present.
disorder of the body's immune system in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys body tissue that it believes to be foreign.
a type of neuropathy affecting the lungs, heart, stomach, intestines, bladder, or genitals.