Diabetes Glossary

Browse or search for definitions from our comprehensive list of diabetes terms.

Browse Glossary: "g"

gangrene

GANG-green

the death of body tissue, most often caused by a lack of blood flow and infection. It can lead to amputation.

gastroparesis

gas-tro-puh-REE-sis

a form of neuropathy that affects the stomach. Digestion of food may be incomplete or delayed, resulting in nausea, vomiting, or bloating, making blood glucose control difficult.

gene

a basic unit of heredity. Genes are made of DNA, a substance that tells cells what to do and when do do it. The information in the genes is passed from the parent to child-for example, a gene might tell some cells to make the hair red or the eyes brown.

genetic

relating to genes. See also: gene ; heredity.

gestation

the length of a pregnancy.

gestational diabetes mellitus

jes-TAY-shun-ul MELL-ih-tus

(GDM): a type of diabetes mellitus that develops only during pregnancy and usually disappears upon delivery, but increases the risk that the mother will develop diabetes later. GDM is managed with meal planning, activity, and, in some cases, insulin.Reported rates of gestational diabetes range from 2 to 10 percent of pregnancies. Five-10 percent of women with gestational diabetes are found to have type 2 diabetes immediately after birth. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 35 -60 percent chance of developing diabetes in the next 10-20 years..New diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes will increase the proportion of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes.It is estimated that 18 percent of all pregnancies are affected by gestational diabetes.Read much more about gestational diabetes here.

gingivitis

JIN-jih-VY-tis

a condition of the gums characterized by inflammation and bleeding.

gland

a group of cells that secrete substances. Endocrine glands secrete hormones. Exocrine glands secrete salt, enzymes , and water.

glargine insulin

GLAR-jeen

very-long-acting insulin. On average, glargine insulin starts to lower blood glucose levels within 1 hour after injection and keeps working evenly for 24 hours after injection.

glaucoma

glaw-KOH-muh

an increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that may lead to loss of vision.

glimepiride

gly-MEH-per-ide

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Amaryl).

glipizide

GLIH-pih-zide

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand names: Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL.)

glomerular filtration rate

glo-MEHR-yoo-lur

measure of the kidney's ability to filter and remove waste products.

glomeruli

glo-MEHR-yoo-lie

plural of glomerulus.

glomerulus

glo-MEHR-yoo-lus

a tiny set of looping blood vessels in the kidney where the blood is filtered and waste products are removed.

glucagon

GLOO-kah-gahn

a hormone produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas. It raises blood glucose. An injectable form of glucagon, available by prescription, may be used to treat severe hypoglycemia.

Glucophage, Glucophage XR

see metformin.

glucose

glucose, or commonly referred to as blood sugar, is the form of energy circulating in the blood stream. Blood glucose is the end result of digestion, absorption and metabolism of food.

glucose tablets

chewable tablets made of pure glucose used for treating hypoglycemia.

glucose tolerance test

see oral glucose tolerance test.

Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL

see glipizide.

Glucovance

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is a combination of glyburide and metformin.

glyburide

GLY-buh-ride

an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand names: DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase; ingredient in Glucovance.)

glycemic index

gly-SEE-mik

(GI): a ranking of carbohydrate-containing foods, based on the food's effect on blood glucose compared with a standard reference food.

glycemic response

the effect of different foods on blood glucose that some kinds of foods may raise blood glucose levels more quickly than other foods containing the same amount of carbohydrates.

glycogen

GLY-koh-jen

the form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.

glycosuria

gly-koh-SOOR-ee-ah

the presence of glucose in the urine.

glycosylated hemoglobin

see A1C

Glynase PresTab

see glyburide.

Glyset

see miglitol.

gram

a unit of weight in the metric system. An ounce equals 28 grams. In some meal plans for people with diabetes, the suggested amounts of food are given in grams.

    Disclaimer

    Our glossary includes and builds on the definitions found in The Diabetes Dictionary (NIH Publication No. 07-3016, October 2006) published by the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, which is available on their website and is not copyrighted. The Clearinghouse encourages users of this publication to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired.

    The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered essential in the context of the information provided.

    The National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). For more information, visit their website at www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov.